India’s Republic Day is a national holiday in India that celebrates the adoption of the Indian Constitution on January 26, 1950. It is marked by a grand parade and cultural events in the national capital, New Delhi, as well as state capitals and other cities across the country. The President of India traditionally delivers a speech and a 21-gun salute is fired in honour of the occasion. It is one of the most important national holidays in India.
The Constituent Assembly of India was elected to write the Constitution of India, and it met for the first time on December 9, 1946. The Assembly was composed of elected members and representatives of Indian princely states. It had a total of 389 members, with 299 being elected and 90 appointed by the princely states. Dr B.R. Ambedkar was appointed as the chairman of the drafting committee, and he played a key role in drafting the Constitution. The Assembly took almost three years to complete the Constitution, and it was adopted on November 26, 1949, and came into effect on January 26, 1950, which is now celebrated as the Republic Day of India.
What is the Constitutional Republic?
A constitutional republic is a form of government in which the authority of the state is limited by a constitution, which outlines the rights and powers of the government and the rights and freedoms of the people. In a constitutional republic, the government is elected by the people, and the powers of the government are defined and limited by a constitution.
The Constitution is the supreme law of the land and any laws or actions of the government that violate the Constitution are considered to be unconstitutional. The Constitution also guarantees the protection of individual rights such as freedom of speech, religion, press, peaceful assembly and fair trial, and equality before the law.
In a constitutional republic, the powers of the government are separated into different branches, such as the legislative, executive and judicial, and each branch has distinct responsibilities and functions. The legislative branch, for example, makes the laws, the executive branch enforces the laws, and the judicial branch interprets the laws and settles disputes. This system of separation of powers is intended to prevent the concentration of power in any one branch of the government, and to ensure that the government is accountable to the people.
India is a federal constitutional republic, which means that powers are divided between the central government and the states and that the country is governed by the Constitution.
Constitution of India
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. It was adopted on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950, making India a republic. The Constitution is the longest-written constitution of any country on earth. As India’s fundamental governing document, Constitution replaced the Government of India Act 1935. Thus, India became the Republic of India.
The Constitution of India is divided into 22 parts and contains 448 articles, 12 schedules and 117 amendments. The Constitution of India was originally written in English and later translated into Hindi and 14 other languages. Some key features of the Indian Constitution include the separation of powers between the executive, legislative and judicial branches, a federal structure of government, and an independent judiciary. The Constitution also provides for the protection of individual rights, such as freedom of speech, religion, and equality before the law, among others.
Initiative for the Constitution of India
The Nehru Report was a constitutional proposal drafted by a committee of the All Parties Congress, led by Motilal Nehru, in 1928, which aimed to address the demands for greater autonomy and self-government in British India. The committee was formed in response to the British government’s announcement of a Simon Commission to consider constitutional reforms in India. The Congress boycotted the Simon Commission and instead, formed the Motilal Nehru Committee to draft a proposal for constitutional reform.
The Nehru Report called for the establishment of a fully responsible government in India and the abolition of the British system of dyarchy. It also called for the creation of a federal system of government with a strong central government and the protection of minority rights. The report also proposed the establishment of a bill of rights, which would guarantee individual freedoms, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
However, the report’s proposals for greater autonomy and self-government were not accepted by the British government and the Muslim League, which rejected the report’s proposals for a federal system of government and the protection of minority rights. The Nehru Report ultimately failed to achieve its goal of constitutional reform and the British government continued to rule India through the Government of India Act 1935 which was passed in 1935.
Constitution drafting committee
The Constituent Assembly of India formed a drafting committee to write the Constitution of India. The drafting committee was headed by Dr B.R. Ambedkar and had seven other members. The other members of the drafting committee were Alladi Krishnaswamy Ayyar, N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar, K.M. Munshi, B.L. Mitter, N. G. Ranga and Mahavir Tyagi.
Dr B.R. Ambedkar, as the chairman of the drafting committee, played a key role in drafting the Constitution. He was widely respected for his legal and constitutional experts, and his contributions to the drafting of the Constitution are widely acknowledged. The other members of the committee also made significant contributions to the drafting process, with Munshi and Ayyangar playing a key role in drafting the provisions related to the rights of minorities and the protection of linguistic and cultural rights respectively.
The drafting committee worked on the Constitution from 1947 to 1949 and presented the final draft to the Constituent Assembly on November 4, 1949, which was adopted on 26th November 1949 and came into effect on 26th January 1950.
Persons behind Idea of the Constitution
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, also known as Babasaheb Ambedkar, was a prominent Indian jurist, political leader, and social reformer. He was born into a Dalit (formerly known as “untouchable”) family and faced significant discrimination throughout his life. Despite this, he went on to become one of the most influential figures in Indian history. He was appointed as the chairman of the drafting committee of the Constituent Assembly of India, which was responsible for writing the Indian Constitution. His contribution to the drafting of the Constitution is widely acknowledged. He is considered the architect of the Indian Constitution.
The idea for a Constituent Assembly was proposed in Dec 1934 by M. N. Roy, a pioneer of the Communist movement in India and an advocate of radical democracy. M.N. Roy, whose full name was Manabendra Nath Roy, was an Indian revolutionary and political leader who played an important role in the Indian independence movement. In the 1920s, Roy became disillusioned with the Communist movement and turned towards a more liberal, secular, and democratic ideology. He founded the Radical Democratic Party in 1948 and later merged it into the Indian National Congress. He was also a member of the Constituent Assembly of India which wrote the Indian Constitution.
Nehru was a member of the Constituent Assembly of India that wrote the Indian Constitution. He was a strong advocate for a secular and democratic Constitution that would guarantee individual rights and freedoms, such as freedom of speech, religion, and equality before the law. He also pushed for the inclusion of provisions that would guarantee the rights of minorities and protect linguistic and cultural diversity.
Nehru also supported the establishment of a federal system of government, with a strong central government and a degree of autonomy for the states, as well as the separation of powers between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. He also had a strong belief that the Constitution should reflect the aspirations of the people and should be flexible to adapt to the changing needs of society. In addition, Nehru also played a key role in implementing the Constitution, which helped to establish the democratic institutions and practices that continue to shape Indian politics today.