5 Most Ancient Civilization known to the world
Civilization can be defined as a stage of human social and cultural development characterized by advanced knowledge, institutions, and technologies. It is a term used to describe a complex society that has developed systems of government, commerce, art, religion, and science.
Civilization typically involves the creation of cities and other urban areas, the development of agriculture and other forms of food production, the use of writing and other forms of communication, the establishment of complex social hierarchies and class structures, and the creation of complex religious and philosophical systems.
While there is no single definition of what constitutes a civilization, scholars often identify certain key features that are characteristic of most civilizations, such as the development of social stratification, the use of a writing system, the creation of monumental architecture, and the establishment of complex systems of trade and commerce.
Cradle of Civilization
The term “cradle of civilization” refers to the geographical location where the first human civilizations developed. This term is often used to describe the region of the Fertile Crescent, which is located in the Middle East and includes parts of modern-day Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan. The Fertile Crescent is considered the cradle of civilization because it was home to some of the earliest human settlements and the birthplace of many significant developments in human history, including the development of agriculture, the invention of the wheel, the creation of writing systems, and the establishment of complex societies.
Some of the earliest civilizations that emerged in the Fertile Crescent include the Sumerians in Mesopotamia, the Akkadian Empire, the Babylonians, and the Assyrians. These civilizations developed advanced technologies and systems of government and religion, and they made significant contributions to human cultures, such as the creation of the first legal codes and the construction of monumental architecture.
While the Fertile Crescent is often considered the cradle of civilization, it is important to note that there were other ancient civilizations that emerged in different parts of the world, such as Ancient Egypt, the Indus valley, and Ancient China. These civilizations also made significant contributions to human history and culture and helped shape the world as we know it today.
The list of six cradles of civilizations
- Ancient Egyptian Civilization
- Indus Valley Civilization
- Mesopotamian Civilization
- Ancient Chinese Civilization
- Caral-Supe civilization
- Olmecs Civilization
The term “Old World” typically refers to the continents of Europe, Asia, and Africa. These three continents are collectively referred to as the Old World because they were known to ancient civilizations and were the centres of some of the world’s earliest civilizations. The term “Old World” is also used in other contexts to refer to things that are traditional or long-established, as opposed to new or innovative ideas or practices. Ancient Egypt, Indus valley, Mesopotamian and Ancient Chinese are the earliest civilizations in the old world.
The term “New World” typically refers to the continents of North and South America. These two continents are collectively referred to as the New World because they were unknown to Europeans until Christopher Columbus’s voyages in the late 15th century. The term “New World” is also used in other contexts to refer to things that are innovative or modern, as opposed to traditional or long-established ideas or practices. Caral-Supe and Olmecs are the earliest civilizations in the new world.
Ancient Civilizations of Old World
Ancient Egyptian Civilization
Ancient Egypt was a civilization that developed in the northeastern part of Africa along the Nile River around 3100 BCE and lasted until the end of the Ptolemaic Dynasty in 30 BCE. It is one of the world’s oldest civilizations and is known for its impressive achievements in art, architecture, engineering, religion, and language.
The Ancient Egyptians developed a system of writing called hieroglyphics, which was used for religious texts, royal decrees, and other important documents. They also built monumental structures such as the Great Pyramids of Giza, which were built as tombs for pharaohs and their consorts.
Religion played a significant role in Ancient Egyptian society, and the Egyptians believed in a complex system of gods and goddesses who controlled different aspects of life. They also developed a complex system of embalming and mummification to preserve the bodies of the deceased for the afterlife.
The Ancient Egyptians also developed a sophisticated system of government and social organization. The pharaoh was the ruler of Egypt, and the society was organized into a strict hierarchy with the pharaoh at the top, followed by nobles, priests, scribes, artisans, and farmers.
In addition to their impressive achievements in architecture and engineering, the Ancient Egyptians also made significant contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. They developed a decimal system of numerals and made important observations about the movement of the sun, moon, and stars. They also developed a system of medicine based on natural remedies and surgery.
Overall, Ancient Egypt was a complex and advanced civilization that made significant contributions to human history and culture. Its legacy continues to influence modern society in many ways, including in art, architecture, religion, and language.
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization (also known as the Harappan Civilization) was an ancient civilization that developed in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, including parts of present-day Pakistan, India, and Afghanistan. It is believed to have emerged around 2600 BCE and lasted until about 1900 BCE.
The Indus Valley Civilization was known for its impressive urban planning, advanced systems of agriculture, and sophisticated drainage and sewage systems. The cities of this civilization were laid out on a grid pattern and had impressive public buildings, such as granaries, public baths, and markets.
The Indus Valley Civilization also had a system of writing, known as the Indus script, which has not yet been fully deciphered. They also produced fine pottery, sculptures, and jewellery, indicating a high level of craftsmanship and artistic ability.
Religion played a significant role in the Indus Valley Civilization, and they believed in a complex system of deities and animal worship. They also had a well-developed system of trade and commerce, with evidence of trade links with Mesopotamia and other ancient civilizations.
Despite the impressive achievements of the Indus Valley Civilization, its decline and eventual disappearance remain a mystery. Some scholars believe that environmental factors, such as climate change or a major earthquake, may have contributed to its decline.
Today, the Indus Valley Civilization remains an important part of India’s cultural heritage, and ongoing research continues to shed light on this ancient and fascinating civilization.
Mesopotamia is the ancient region located in the eastern Mediterranean, which includes the present-day countries of Iraq, Kuwait, and parts of Syria and Turkey. The Mesopotamian civilization was one of the earliest civilizations in the world, and it emerged in the region around 4000 BCE.
The Mesopotamian civilization is known for its impressive achievements in art, literature, science, and technology. The Mesopotamians developed the world’s first writing system, cuneiform, which was used for recording transactions, keeping accounts, and recording religious texts.
The Mesopotamians also developed complex systems of government and social organization, including the creation of the first city-states. These city-states were ruled by kings and had their own systems of laws and government.
Religion played a significant role in Mesopotamian society, and they believed in a pantheon of gods and goddesses who controlled different aspects of life. They also built impressive temples and ziggurats, which were believed to be the dwelling places of the gods.
The Mesopotamians were also skilled engineers and architects, and they built impressive structures such as the ziggurats, which were towering stepped pyramids that served as religious centres. They also developed advanced irrigation systems, which allowed them to farm the fertile land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
Overall, the Mesopotamian civilization made significant contributions to human history and culture, and their legacy can still be seen in modern society today. The Mesopotamians were responsible for developing many of the foundational technologies and cultural practices that continue to shape our world today.
Ancient Chinese Civilization
The ancient Chinese civilization, also known as the “Middle Kingdom,” emerged along the Yellow River valley in the northeastern part of present-day China around 5000 BCE. It is one of the world’s oldest civilizations, and it lasted until the end of the imperial era in 1912 CE.
The ancient Chinese civilization is known for its impressive achievements in philosophy, literature, science, technology, and art. The Chinese developed a complex system of writing, which is still in use today, as well as a wide range of other cultural practices and beliefs.
Religion played a significant role in ancient Chinese society, and they developed a complex system of beliefs and practices, including ancestor worship, Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism.
The Chinese also made significant contributions to science and technology, including the development of papermaking, gunpowder, and the compass. They also developed sophisticated irrigation systems, which allowed them to farm the fertile land along the Yangtze River.
The Chinese also developed a sophisticated system of government and social organization, including the creation of the first centralized bureaucracy and the establishment of a civil service examination system. This system allowed talented individuals from all social classes to rise to positions of power based on their abilities rather than their social status.
Overall, the ancient Chinese civilization made significant contributions to human history and culture, and its legacy can still be seen in modern society today. The Chinese were responsible for developing many of the foundational technologies and cultural practices that continue to shape our world today.
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